The Incasby : Abinaya Lakshmanan 10-10-11
Map Of the Incan empire

The Incas

The Incan empire was a very well-built empire in the sense that they were very highly developed and they were an incredible culture in the Atlantic World. They lived on the west side South America. The Incan empire stretched for 2000 miles on the coast of South America. The capital of the Incas, Cuzco, was high up in the Andes Mountains. The Incans were highly developed in many aspects. One of those many aspects was that they were incredible at technology. For example, Machu Picchu was an advanced city in the Incan empire. Some other aspects include government, daily life, and religion. The main connection between them and the Atlantic world is that they sadly got killed by the Spanish. The various aspects had even littler parts to them which all play a part in the great empire of the Incans.
The technology in the Incan was very beneficial and influenced some of the technology we have today. For example, one of the most amazing sights was the terraces in Machu Picchu. These terraces were built to make farming more efficient. They transformed steep hills into stone steps that they could farm on. These terraces also prevented erosion because they kept the rainwater form running. Irrigation also played a part in farming. The irrigation canals helped carry water in and out of the farms. These included cisterns, dams, and canals. Apart from the farming technology, the Incas had various other advanced objects that helped them such as their calendar and their roads. These are some that are still used today. The calendar is very similar to the one we use now. They had 12 months but only 3 weeks in a month. There were 10 days in each week. Their roads on the other hand were incredible. They ran for 15,000 miles with highways running both ways across the highway. One running on the highlands , and the other on the coast. These highways were smoothed with stone whenever they could. They also had rope-suspension bridges that covered any canyons and fast flowing rivers. The Incan homes were made out of stone, mud, or wood depending on where they lived. Some select houses were made out of sun-dried bricks called adobe. Most houses were simple, one room homes with no windows, no chimneys, and no . The Incas may not have been incredibly advanced but they still built large buildings. They had no wheeled contraptions so they used ramps and rollers to build their big buildings. This technology influenced much of the technology in other empires as well as the technology today but, the technology was not the only thing that made the Incas incredible.

Incan Calender
Terrace farming in Machu Picchu

The government was a very important aspect of the Incan empire because of its highly structured form. The Sapa Inca was the top of the government and had much authority in the empire. He lived in great palaces and had many servants and bodyguards. The Sapa Inca was considered the sun by his people. The next level of authority was the 4 Apus or governors. They helped the Sapa Inca rule and they were usually his relatives. The Apus were in charge of ruling one fourth of the entire land called suyu. After them were the provincial leaders such as the curacas who were the local leaders. As well as district heads known as camayoc who ruled certain families and enforced the laws. . Then were the tax collectors. Lastly, were the workers. The importance of the government is that they kept order within the empire. They were the foundation of the empire and kept the place running how it should. Although the government was important that was not all it took to make a good empire.

Sapa Inca

Daily Life played a very important role in the structure of the Incas because they had a very precise way of doing things and the daily life contributed heavily on the Incan empire. The Incas lived in groups known as Ayllu. They were a group of 10-20 people much like a family. They each had different jobs. Each Ayllu was assigned a piece of land to farm on. The life of the Incas was very strict. They had almost no freedom. The only items in their home were tools for their work. Also they could not run a business of their own. The only things they had time for other than work was usually bathing or eating. Otherwise all they did was celebrate state approved holidays, work in fields, and sleep. If any rules were broken the punishment was death. They could have 2- 3 meals per day. The children had ceremonies for when they became adults and got their adult name. For the girls it was when they turned 13, and for boys it was when they were 14. Boys also got their skills tested. One of the things that kept the empire running was their precise social structure. The lowest rank was slaves and farmers who only made just enough food to feed their family. The next rank was people who could support their families and manage a job in town such as carpenters and jewelers. The next rank was Ayllu, who are known for their family backgrounds and how much land they own. Not only was their government strict but as was their daily life and social structure and this also kept empire under control and orderly. Although life was all order that does not mean that they did not have some freedom. Their religion was also inspired and kept their lives worth living.

They had a very interesting perspective on religion as well and their beliefs were much like the other empires. The Incas were polytheistic which meant they believed in multiple gods. The main god was Inti the sun god who was the father of the world and Mama Quilla the moon good was the mother of the world and wife of the sun. The stars were considered the children of the sun and the moon. Some of the other gods were Viracohca the god of creation, Illapa the strong father of the sun, Pacha Mama was the mother of nature and last but not least Mama Cocha is the mother of seas and oceans. The Incan were considered the children of the sun. The Incans thought that disasters were caused by gods if they didn’t keep them happy. They had holy places where the Incans worshipped. There were holy mountains and streams. They also had offerings for the. The temples that they worshipped in were called huacas. Young woman called Acalla served in the temples. They also had priests who took care of the temples. They made sacrifices to gods and listened to oracles to tell the future. There were also priestesses who lived in special houses and wore fine clothing. Only royal family was allowed to worship here though. Regular people had to worship in open-air services. Just like the Egyptians the Incans believed in the afterlife. For example they had 8 day funerals and they mummified their dead. They believed that their dead ancestors could communicate to them through dreams and omens. Their religion was very similar to other civilizations and may have influenced how we think of our religion today. The Incan empire lasted just over 100 years and it came to a sudden stop because of the Spanish attack.

Represents the Sun God Inti
Represents the moon god Mama Quilla

When the Incas interacted with the Spanish it brought them to their downfall because they were not prepared. The first part of their downfall was when the Spanish came to the Incan empire. The Spanish brought smallpox with them and the Incas did not know how to treat it. The Sapa Inca of that time soon died because of smallpox. The next part of their downfall is that the Sapa Inca’s 2 sons were fighting over control of the empire. Then the Incan empire split into two and half supported one brother while the others supported the other one. This civil war brought down some of the remaining Incas. Lastly, the Spanish explorer Francisco Pissarro captured the son that became ruler. He said that the Incas could fight his army they would be free but his team easily beat the Incan army and captured the ruler once again. Then he asked for a ransom of gold and silver. The Incas gave it to them but Francisco killed him anyway. He took over the empire and the Incas were gone for good. This empire may have been great but the Spanish incredible force killed them off. The Spanish were the main connection between them and the Atlantic World. Also they were a huge part in the founding of America. This empire an incredible empire that will never be forgotten.