1. Area inhabited/ruled [if members of your group emigrated, immigrated, or established settlement (colonies) outside of their home country you should include an explanation of that travel or settlement in this section; include places traveled and reasons for leaving home country]
  2. Everyday Life
  3. Social and Political Organization
  4. Religion
  5. Arts/Technology/Developed CultureAncient Portugal
    Ward Hanser
    7204
    October 10, 2011


    Political and Social Structure
    henry.jpg
    Prince Henry the Navigator

    Ancient Portugal was a monarchy. Prince Henry the Navigator was the son of King Joao I.Prince Henry the Navigator was also a key contributor to Portugal’s vast expansion. After a few successful explorations (one finding the Azores Islands), he opened a school and taught the secrets of navigation to young explorers. Knowledge was very important, if you wanted to be successful, knowledge was the key. Henry the Navigator had been on a few voyages and found the secrets of navigation and taught them to young explorers. . Knowledge was very important, if you wanted to be successful, knowledge was the key. Henry the Navigator had been on a few voyages and found the secrets of navigation and taught them to young explorers.



    Religion, Arts and Technology
    Portugal is Christian. Around 84% of the country is Catholic. In 1497, the Portuguese expelled all of the Jewish people and the last of the Mooimages.jpgrs, or forced them to convert to Christianity. The golden age of Portuguese art began in the 1400’s and lasted for nearly 200 years. During this time there were many beautiful churches constructed. The Portuguese even created a new type of architecture/decorat
    caravel_150x200.jpg
    Portuguese Caravel
    ion called manueline. Manueline consisted of lots of decoration, such as paintings, sculptures, and mosaics. The most famous piece of work from the golden age is Os Luisdas, a poem written in 1572 about Portugal and its great heroes. The Portuguese Empire was mostly built off of daring explorers; well these explorers wouldn’t have gotten far if it wasn’t for the Portuguese Caravel. The Portuguese Caravel was a ship invented by the Portuguese; it had a rounder hull, and was better suited for the Atlantic Ocean. It had lanteen (square) sails and it required a smaller crew than the traditional ship.


  6. The Age of Exploration
    In the 1400’s Portugal emerged into a maritime power. The first place that the Portuguese captured was Cueta, a trading post in Morocco in 1415. Between 1418 and 1431 Portugal explored all around the Atlantic Ocean. There they found numerous islands that became under the Portuguese rule, such as the Cape Verde Islands and the Azores Islands, just to name a few. Portugal was always feuding with Spain about whose land was whose, so they came to the agreement that anything west of the Cape Verde Islands would be Spain’s. After that, in 1434, they started exploring down the west coast of Africa and creating colonies. Eventually they went so far so
    Portuguese_Empire_map.jpg
    This is a map of the Portuguese Empire, the green stands for the land that they conquered and controled and the red is trading posts and places of interests.
    uth that they became the first Europeans to sail around the southern tip of Africa, also known as the Cape of Good Hope. After the first time they began to do so more often, setting up colonies in India, Asia, Indonesia, Indochina, the Spice Islands, the Arabian and Malaysian Peninsula, the East Indies, and Australia. The Portuguese were the first Europeans to make trade with Japan and China. The finding of Portugal’s biggest and most famous colony, Brazil, was actually an accident. In 1500, Portugal had already founded many colonies all over the Atlantic and Indian Ocean, Pedro Alveres Cabral (probably going to the Indian Ocean) was heavily blown off course by bad currents and winds, the explorers eventually struck land. The explorers claimed the newly found land for the Portuguese Empire. What the explorers didn’t know was that they had landed in South America. This new land eventually became known as Brazil.
    Because of the country’s expansion, the capitol flourished. Lisbon, the capitol, became an economic, cultural, political, and commercial center. From all of those colonies they got many different imports, such as: spice from Asia, gold and slaves from Africa, and gold, diamonds, and land (good for crops and economy) from Brazil.


    The Decline of the Portuguese Empire
    The decline of the Portuguese Empire started in many ways. One was two disastrous military battles, one was Spain’s attempt to capture England, where Portugal helped by lending them ships. Another part was when Spain took over Portugal in 1580 until 1640, after Portugal regained independency, it was too weak and didn’t have the military power to keep and control all of their colonies. Gradually they lost their colonies and status to countries like England and France. The Portuguese were just a little over ambitious for such a small country and they eventually lost all of it.