Area Inhabited:

Early Portugal was found around the 1000s by Paleolithic’s. The Paleolithic people were from a prehistoric era about 2.6 million years ago. These people were sailors that were exploring land when a person in there group, now known as King Afonso Henriques, spotted Portugal. King Henriques became the king in 1128 because he had killed his mother which made the whole country cherish him and his rules. He then thought of the name Portus Cale meaning port of cale. It was then changed to Portucale. In between 1580-1640 Portugal became close with Spain. They were known as neighboring countries. The Pre-Celts and Celts were the first people to settle there. Years later the Moors, Gallaeci, Lusitanians, Celtici, and Cynetes settled there. Portugal then became independent in 1139.
This is King Afonso Henriques

These are early Paleolithics

Everyday Life:

Portuguese people enjoyed a lot about their country but the most important to them was music, art, drama, and dance. You could enjoy these hobbies by going to the mall where they had cinemas, hypermarkets, and restaurants. The food in Portugal differed by the region. Some foods that were common to all regions were fish, meats, cod, and seafood. Cozido a Portuguesa was a famous stew that they ate in every region. One genre of music was known as Fado, this was popular and sung about sea, life of the poor, and other. Each region showed there appreciation in different ways, like in Lisbon you clapped after the song but in Coinbra one would cough as if they were clearing there throut. Sports were not particularly played often but they had the same sports one would find in other countries, football being the most popular. People had few jobs to choose from, but everyone would hunt, gather, fish, or be a house mother. Hunters hunted for bones of oxen, deer, sheep, horses, and pigs. Clothing was different in the rural and city areas but not important to the Portuguese. Men and women in the city wore western pattern clothing, but in the rural areas the men wore stocking caps, berets, trousers, and baggy shirts. The women in the rural areas wore black shawls and long dresses.
People who lived in Portugal would most likely wear these clothes
This is a mall in Averio, Portugal called the Averio Mall

Government and Political Organization:

In Portugal, the government started as a monarchy and that lasted until the twentieth century. After the monarchy came the democracy in 1974, which is still the present government of Portugal. Today the democracy includes the president, the assembly, and the legal courts of law. Now let’s go back in time and see how the government used to work. Afonso Henriques was the first king of Portugal. All kings had royal counsels. The counsels consisted of a chancellor, a scribe, majordomo, and a notary. The scribe wrote documents and things for the king, the notary helped the king make important decisions; the majordomo was the bodyguard for the king, and the chancellor was the highest owner of land. Another important part of ancient government of Portugal was the Cortes. The Cortes was another royal counsel that the king would often go to with any help he seeked. It was made up of men from all of the social classes. The job of the Cortes was to help the king with decision making when needed, but the Cortes could not do anything unless the king needed them. The Cortes was abolished in 1697 because of the monarchy of Portugal. Also, Portugal was divided into different estates or terras as they were called. Every terra had a governor who was a citizen of the terra. The governor made small laws and help together the terra, but the king still had all of the power. The political organization has changed a lot from what it used to be like.
This is king Afonso Henriques, the first king of Portugal

Social Organization:

In ancient Portugal, there were 3 different social classes; clergy, nobility, and commoners. The first and highest social class below the king was clergy. There were 2 parts of clergy. Upper clergy was the higher group consisting of bishops and abbots. Lower clergy was the lower group consisting of monks and priests. Both groups of clergy were treated very well and had a lot of rights. The next social class was called nobility. Nobility had 3 groups within it. Highest nobility consisted of wealthy men of Portugal who had large estates and had their own private armies. Lesser nobility was made up of fairly wealthy people who owned smaller estates, no private armies, but freedom and rights. Villein knights were high commoners but considered in the nobility social class. They rode horses and used weapons, planned attacks on Muslims, and served the king. The next and lowest social class was commoners. Commoners farmed, raised stock, and did village crafts. They were at the very bottom of the pyramid. Outside of the social pyramid were slaves. They had no rights, no privileges. The social pyramid of ancient Portugal may not have been fair but it grouped the people successfully.
This is a picture of a villein knight of Portugal


Religion included churches and holidays and all of these are the most important to the people in Portugal. 97% of the people were Roman Catholic which was the highest percent in Western Europe. Every person who practiced this religion, was baptized, married at some point or another, and they received there last rights. There were also traditions celebrated all the time, including holidays and festivals that were celebrated every season. One tradition was that anytime a new building, bridge, or highway was built it would receive clergy. A reason that the church was important was because King Afonso Henriques made the church the countries largest land owner in the 13th to 14th century. Then that made the church separate from the state and become two large landowners. Education and health were also a big part because it was along the churches preserve.
This is Shrine of our Lady of Fatima in Fatima, Portugal

Art and Technology:

Portuguese art is one of the most beautiful and famous in the world. A lot of Portuguese art comes from Brazil. Some art that the Portuguese used was sculptures, paintings, and azulejos. Portuguese sculpture was usually tombs or wooden structures. They made very decorative and magnificent tombs. Azulejos are the most famous form of art in Portugal. They are glazed tiles. They covered many buildings with their usually blue, white, and other soft colors. Besides the amazing art the Portuguese had, they also had many world famous artists. Maria Helena Vieira de Silva was a Portuguese woman who is one of the world’s finest abstract painters. There is also Carlos Botelho who does amazing street art, and Paula Rego, who told stories through her famous paintings. Portuguese technology today is very advanced, but back in the 1400’s there is no evidence of developed technology. There is history of a Portuguese university called Stadium Generale. Stadium Generale was founded in 1290 and is one of the oldest and most historical universities in all of Latin America. The art and technology of ancient Portugal has developed a lot from what it used to be.
This shows Portuguese azulejos

Music and Culture:

For the Portuguese, music was a very important part of their lives. In Portugal, dancing and folk music was very popular, but a music called Fado is the most famous and popular. Fado is a soft lyrical music that can be very beautiful if it is performed correctly. It is supposed to sound very familiar to African slave music. Fado can be about many different things, but the most common subject is love. Fado is performed by fadistas. While performing, they wear black and sing while they have their musicians behind them. When Fado is being performed, the audience gets really quiet and no more food or drink is served. There are many amazing fadistas in Portugal, but one of the most famous currently is Mariza from Portugal. She has moved hearts of millions with her beautiful performances of Fado. There were people who performed the music, and people who listened to it. Right now, about 10 million people live in Portugal, with a big chunk of them living in the capital Lisbon. Portugal is made up of many different kinds of people; Celts, Germans, Romans, Iberians, Moors, and more, but post people have similar appearances. Most people have brown hair, dark eyes, and are less than 6 feet tall. About 97% of the people are Roman Catholics; the other 3% were a couple different religions. Although the Portuguese were religious, only one third of the people went to church regularly. The language of Portuguese is spoken on 4 different continents. It came from Latin and is one of the most spoken languages in the entire world. Portuguese music and culture is one of the few to spread and be famous worldwide.
This is Mariza, a very famous fadista