Spain and the Atlantic world
R.S.H. and Ifox: During the time of the age of exploration, many countries went out in search of land. One of the many countries to explore the world was Spain. The country of Spain flourished during this time. Spain’s culture helps us understand what daily life was like. Spain had many great explorers that discovered many different places. Spain also had advanced technology such as boats that were able to take the explorers to where they needed to go. Their religion and social and political organization was very interesting. Also during the time of the age of exploration, the Spanish advanced in the arts during a time period called the Golden Age.

Ifox: During Spanish exploration, many different explorers traveled to different places in the world. There were many reasons why the explorers traveled the world, some traveled in search of gold and silver, other explorers traveled in search of trade routes, and some traveled for fame. Christopher Columbus was an explorer born of Italian origin; he had created a travel route which would take him to Asia. Columbus first presented his travel route to the court of Portugal, but he was denied, because the court thought it would take too long. He then traveled to Spain and told the Spanish court about his route. He was at first refused by Queen Isabel, but her husband Ferdinand convinced her to change her mind. In 1498, Columbus reached South America. Vasco Nunez de Balboa sailed to the Pacific Ocean on a quest for gold, when he reached land he claimed that all the land in the Pacific Ocean now belonged to Spain.
Hernando Cortez traveled to Cuba in search of the city of gold that was said to be located somewhere in South America, when he reached the Aztec city; Mexico City, he used his solders to force the Aztec’s to work in gold and silver mines, the gold and silver were then shipped to Spain.

Francisco Coronado left Spain and traveled to Mexico in 1540 in search of the Seven Golden Cities of Cibola, he traveled through modern day; north Mexico, New Mexico and Texas. He then sent his men out to find the Cities of gold but instead they discovered the Grand Canyon. Then Francisco traveled east but found no Golden Cities. Upset with what he had found Francisco ended up claiming all the land that he had explored for Spain.
Francisco Pizarro explored the coast of Peru in 1539 in search of the wealthy Indian empire. He was then granted permission to take over Peru, after killing about 2,000 Indians; he managed to capture the Inca emperor. Francisco offered a large ransom for the emperor’s return. Once the emperor was released, he was ordered to be executed.
Hernando De Soto sailed to Florida in 1539 on a quest for gold, he and his men traveled to modern day Georgia, when they encountered the Indians, Hernando forced them to give his men supplies, this lead to many battles against the Indians. Hernando did not find any gold but he did later discover present day Mississippi river and present day Tennessee.
This is a map showing where the Spanish explored. external image new-spain-spanish-empire-world-map.jpg
Ifox: In the time of the age of exploration, the country Spain had an interesting lifestyle. Spanish houses were bunched together to form villages. Married parents and their children would all live in one house, while older couples and un- married people would live alone. Men would usually own property, but single or widowed women were allowed to own property for themselves. If a man were to receive property, he would also receive all the other positions that came with it such as the livestock, tools, furniture, jewelry, and cash. Men and women would marry others within their social class, or they would marry someone who could better support them. Most married women stayed at their home while their husbands worked, at their house the women would clean and cook. The Spanish people ate; bread, rice, vegetables, pork, lamb, beef, eggs, chicken, rabbits, wild herbs, game, fish, shellfish, olives, olive oil, fruits, nuts, grapes, wine, milk, and goat cheese. Most towns consisted of houses, barns, storage houses, school houses, churches, fields, woods, and sometimes gardens. Children began school at the age of 6. The children were taught was how to cook, they were also taught basic literacy.
Ifox: While exploring the new world, the Spanish used many types of technology to help them sail across the sea, many of which used oars or sails to help them move. Many different ships were used for sea travel; this was very advanced technology at the time.
The Fragata, and Bergantin were small war ships that moved by using oars and a single sale, the only difference was that the Bergantin was used for exploration. external image SS-Bergantin.jpg
The Galeota was a bigger ship that was not normally used for exploration, this boat had multiple sails but it could also move by rowing oars. external image lanteen.jpg
A Spanish Treasure Frigate was larger than the Galeota, it moved by the use of multiple sails, and it was used for transporting treasure from the islands that were explored back to Spain.
The Caravela was another type of ship that was used in Spain, this ship also moved by the use of multiple sails. The Galleon was a large ship that could carry cargo along with a large amount of passengers; this ship was moved by multiple sails.
The Navo or Nao was the biggest ship out of them all it was often saw as a war ship, and like most big ships it moved using multiple sails.
Ifox: During 1500 to 1618, was the best era of Spain’s artistic culture, this time was known as the Golden Age of Spain, during this time the Spanish did really well in the fields of latitude, and painting. During the Golden Age some of Spain’s best music was written. In Spain, many cultures are shown through Spanish art such as Phoenicians, Greek, Roman and many others. Many famous artists were from this time. El Greco moved to Spain after growing up in Italy, in Spain he mixed the Spanish way of painting with the Italian way of painting. He drew pictures based on emotions; he also used many bright colors when painting. external image AR0420_toledo_04-20-08_F29PVV4.jpg
Diego Velázquez was said to be one of Spain’s most important influential artists. He was able to draw emotion through his portrait’s and landscapes. Many people across Europe wanted him to paint portraits for them.
Tomás Luis de Victoria was a Spanish composer who was regarded as one of Spain’s greatest classical composers. He like Greco took qualities from Spanish and Italian music and mixed them together, he was known for creating musical thought by putting tone and emotion into his music.

R.S.H. Catholicism was the main religion of Spain. The Treaty of Granada in 1491 gave some protection to Muslims and Jews, who were a small minority. Some of those protections were undone in the Alhambra Decree the next year. The Alhambra Decree was an edict by Queen Isabella of Castile and King Ferdinand of Aragon established on March 31, 1492. It stated that the Jewish population were to be given a four month deadline to either become Catholic, or to leave. Any Jew that didn’t abide by this degree was sentenced to death. Jews that decided to stay in Spain and convert to Christianity were called coversos. There were some who only pretended to convert in order to remain in Spain, but they were secretly still Jewish. These people were referred to as crypto-Jews. Finally, The Alhambra Degree was revoked by the Second Vatican Council in 1968. external image Alhambra_Decree.jpg

R.S.H. The King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile were wed in 1496, uniting the two kingdoms to form Spain. This newly-formed country was ruled by a monarchy. Shortly after Queen Isabella’s passing, her daughter Joanna took the throne. She was more commonly known as “Joanna the Mad” due to her psychiatric problems. Despite her mental instability, Joanna remained queen for approximately 39 years. Betwixt 1506 and 1700, Spain was ruled by people from the Habsburg Dynasty. The peak of the Spanish empire was during the beginning of the Habsburg Dynasty, under the rule of Charles the first and Philips the second for most of the 1500s. Even today, Spain has a monarch. external image wedding-portrait_king-fernand-queen-isabella.jpg

R.S.H Spain’s main motives for leaving their home country were to spread Christianity and to obtain wealth. They spread Christianity by trying to convert the people in the conquered areas. The Spanish traded with colonies and took their resources to obtain wealth. The places that Spain took over to expand their empire included parts of the Americas (which was later named New Spain) and also islands in the Asia Pacific area, parts of Italy, the Netherlands, Northern Africa, and parts of what is now modern-day Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, France, and Luxemburg.

R.S.H. and Ifox: We can now understand where the explorer traveled, what age art was important in Spain, why they left, what religion they followed, their social and political organization, and what daily life was like. After the Age of Exploration, Spain continued to last as a great empire. Spain has been a very successful country during the Age of Exploration, and it continues to be a successful country today.

R.S.H. Bibliography "Ferdinand II of Aragon." Web. 22 Sept. 2011."Isabella I of Castile" Web. 23 Sept. 2011.

"Joanna of Castile." Web. 27 Sept. 2011.

"New Spain." Web. 20 Sept. 2011.

"Spain." 2011. Web. 2 Oct. 2011. <>

“Spain." Web. 20 Sept. 2011.

R.S.H. Picture Bibliography

Isabella’s Bibliography: Works Cited

“Christopher Columbus.” New World Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2011. [[‌entry/‌Christopher_Columbus#Columbus.27s_campaign_for_funding|‌entry/‌Christopher_Columbus#Columbus.27s_campaign_for_funding]] . This web site was very detailed, and it helped me a lot.

Culture of Spain. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2011. [[‌Sa-Th/‌Spain.html]] . This was a very helpful website that helped me understand a lot about the life of the people in Spain.

“Spain.” New World Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2011. [[‌entry/‌Spain#Golden_age|‌entry/‌Spain#Golden_age]] . This web site really helped me; it has lots of useful information that can help me with my project.

“Spain: the arts.” Encyclopedia Britannica. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2011. [[‌EBchecked/‌topic/‌557573/‌Spain/‌258828/‌The-arts]] . This web site helped me gather some important information.

Spanish Come to the New World. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2011. [[‌explorers/‌spanishexplorers.htm]] . This web site was very helpful in helping me understand Spanish explorers and where they traveled.

Spanish Golden Age. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2011. [[‌topics/‌Spanish_Golden_Age]] . This web site was very helpful with helping me get a little more detailed information about the Spanish Golden Age.

Why Explorers Explored the World. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Oct. 2011. [[‌J002678F/‌why.htm]] . This paragraph helped me understand why the explorers explored the Atlantic World.

Wilkinson, Jerry. Early Spanish Sailing Ships. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2011. [[‌SS-Sp-Sail-ships.html]] . This site really helped me to better understand what kinds of ships were used during Spanish exploration

Isabella’s: Picture bibliography: