Sanchita Sen and Carolyn Botz
Section #7104


1.Area inhabited/ruled [if members of your group emigrated, immigrated, or established settlement (colonies) outside of their home country you should include an explanation of that travel or settlement in this section; include places traveled and reasons for leaving home country]
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The Iberian Peninsula


In 1400A.D, the Spaniards were located in Spain and the Iberian Peninsula. They split the country into five separate parts; Aragon, Castillo, Navarre, Granada, and Portugal. Spain was also separated by religion in those five sections. In the Christian ruled sections, they were focused on having a good area to live in with plenty of food and a good military. In the Moor countries, they focused on having a big population so that some Muslim countries that weren’t allies attacked and took them over. What was good about their location was that they could sail or travel to Muslim countries around it, and they became allies with a few, which helped them fight off everyone trying to take over their land.
2. Everyday Life

In early Spain, there was a class structure. To be more specific, their class structure was an aristocracy, or a form of government with a ruler of nobility. The rulers of the country were the king and queen. In Spain, there really was no middle class. Instead, the king would divide up his land into estates, and would assign a noble to each estate. On the estate, the lowest class, or the peasants, would work. Majority of the population were peasants. Meat was very expensive, and considered a privilege that only the nobles and upper class- the king and queen- could afford. The peasants would eat things like barley, oats, and rye. The king and queen would have all of the above, and more, on their table. As an occupation, the peasants would be farmers. They would harvest their crop on the nobles’ estates. The freeman, or people who could lead their lives as they pleased, could be doctors, any type of black smith, etcetera. The nobles, King, and Queen of the country didn’t have an occupation. Clothing-wise, the queen would wear voluminous gowns with a tight bodice, and either sleeves that draped to the floor, or tight sleeves with puffed shoulders. The train of the gown would be long and trailing. The king would wear a doublet with long sleeves, a ruff, a tunic, leggings, and a robe. The nobles would wear almost the same. The peasants would wear a blouse of cloth held by a belt, wool leggings, and large boots.



3. Social and Political OrganizationSpain had three social classes, like many countries do. The highest class is the Granada’s. They were a ruling class; they were superior to the middle class by economics. The middle class was trying to take over the higher class, and already ruled over the peasants, the lower class. Both the peasants and the middle classes were trying to take over, that is why they ended up working together. Spaniards were bias to enforcing the classes, but to other countries, such as Islamic ones, are bias to downing the classes and focusing on more important things (to them). GRANADA->MIDDLE CLASS->PEASANTS
4. Religion

By 1400 A.D., many religions already existed in Spain. Some of them included Catholicism, introduced by the Visigoths, Germanic, Hispano-Roman, and Judaism. The Jews had come to Spain, and settled in great numbers to escape persecution. In 1479, the kingdoms of Castile, León, and Aragón united. Marriage, warfare, and inheritance took place between the Christian kings to unite these kingdoms. In 1492, all people who weren’t Christian, converted to Christianity, or were banished from Spain. Today, the religion in Spain is primarily Christian.

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Visigoth Christian Church in Barcelona, Spain





5. Arts/Technology/Developed CultureARTS: In Spain, they were artistic people and even called it the Spanish Renaissance. There were two types of art, one that was influenced by Italy, and another called Mannerism. People following Italian influence went to Valencia, Spain, where they were closer to Italy and it was important there. They studied there and some went on to become relatively famous artists. Others, who followed Mannerism, were in multiple cities, and the topics varied by religion. The Christians painted pictures of Mary and Jesus and other Christian based pictures. But Mannerism wasn’t based by religion. It was about nature, like plants animals, and people in their natural habitats.
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TECHNOLOGY: During the 15th century, the Spaniards used mostly battleships to fight off enemies. They had one ship called a Fireship, also known as an attack ship. They used these ships to keep away enemies sailing in. Also, Galleass was ships armed with cannons, which were used in the 13th century all the way up to now. Those cannons were called Grim helms. They were usually made out of stone with metal stands. But to fire those cannons, they needed gunpowder, which they got from the Islamic by trade. They also used their ships for exploration. They planned to sail around Africa to India, hoping to come across gold. They used to gold to trade for slaves wherever possible. Most of this took place under King Henry’s reign, and when he died, the sailing slowed down. They used a few swords for ground fighting but not for much more.
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DEVELOPED CULTURE:


The Spanish culture has been around since the medieval times, and is still practiced today. The people in Spain mainly spoke Castilian Spanish, the standard for the Spanish language. Spanish is derived from Vulgar Latin. One thing that definitely was a part of Spanish culture was bullfighting. In this time period-1400 to 1600- things like building projects and construction flourished. Painting was also a major part of the Spanish culture.
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16th century castle in Barcelona, Spain / Bullfighting in Spain/ Spanish flag during that time/